Objectives for Exam 3
· Distinguish Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acids and bases.
· Identify substances as acting as Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acids or bases in a chemical reaction.
· Write the formulas for conjugate acids and bases.
· Write an equation to show the dissociation of a weak acid.
· Write an equation to show how the conjugate base of a weak acid acts as a base in water.
· Write an equation to show how neutral nitrogen compounds act as bases in water.
· Explain how the strength of an acid (Ka value) effects the pH of the acid
· Use Ka for an weak acid to calculate Kb for its conjugate base
· Use Kb for an weak base to calculate Kb for its conjugate acid
· Use Ka (or pKa) values to compare the relative strengths of acids of bases
Given one of the following, calculate the other three: [H+],
Calculate [H+], [
Calculate [H+], [
· Calculate the pH or pOH and percent dissociation of a weak acid or base
· Given pH for a weak acid (or base), calculate its Ka (or Kb)
· Compare the relative strength of acids based on their structure
· Calculate the pH and [ ] of species present in a polyprotic acid
· Compare the pH of salts and write equations to explain their acid/base properties
· Calculate the pH of the four types of salt solutions.
· Explain how to make a buffered solution
· Calculate the pH of a buffered solution prepared by the three methods discussed
· Calculate the pH of a buffered solution after the addition of a strong acid or base.
· Know when and how to use the Henderson-Hasselbach equation to calculate the pH of a buffer solution.
· Describe the procedure for making a buffer of a specified pH.
· Explain buffering capacity and how a buffer resists change in pH
· Calculate pH values and sketch a graph of the titration of a strong or weak acid with a strong base. and describe the major regions of the graph. Remember there are 4 regions in the titration.
· Calculate pH values and sketch a graph of the titration of a strong or weak base with a strong acid and describe the major regions of the graph. Remember there are 4 regions in the titration.
· Generate a titration graph for the titration of a polyprotic acid
· Choose the appropriate indicator for a given titration
· Understand wave model of light and properties of waves
· Understand the photon model of light
· Understand the significance of Young’s double slit experiment
· Understand the significance of the photoelectric effect
· Using the equations lu = c and E = hu, calculate energy, wavelength, or frequency
· Understand de Broglie’s hypothesis and use l = h/p to calculate l , p, or v
· Differentiate between a continuous and a line (discontinous) spectra
· Know the major concepts of the Bohr model of the H atom
· Given the equation, E = - RH (1/n2), calculate the allowed energy levels of the H atom, the energies associated with transitions between energy levels, and the frequency of light produced by given energy transitions
· Know the significance of the wave function, Y, and Y2 for the Schrodinger (or wave) model of the H atom
· Compare the Bohr model of an orbit and the Schrodinger model of an orbital
· Be able to predict allowed values of the quantum numbers or knowing quantum numbers predict the type of orbital
· Apply the aufbau, principle, Hund’s rule, and Pauli exclusion principle to writing electron configurations and orbital diagrams for atoms or ions
· Define ionization energy and electron affinity
· Predict and explain periodic trends in atomic radius, ionization energy, and electron affinity in moving across a row or down a column
· Explain increase in successive ionization energies for an element
· Compare and explain the sizes of isoelectronic species